Its parent star is 48 light-years from the Sun, in the constellation Ophiuchus. Gliese 1214 b (thường được rút ngắn thành GJ 1214 b aka Ocean Planet) là một ngoại hành tinh quay quanh ngôi sao Gliese 1214, và được phát hiện vào tháng 12 năm 2009. [7] It is possible to propose structures by assuming different compositions, guided by scenarios for the formation and evolution of the planet. “A huge fraction of its mass is made up of water.” GJ 1214b was discovered in 2009 by the ground-based MEarth (pronounced “mirth”) Project, which is led by CfA’s David Charbonneau. GJ 1214b stands out among the detected low-mass exoplanets, because it is, so far, the only one amenable to transmission spectroscopy. "A huge fraction of its mass is made up of water." Based on its size and mass—2.8 Earth radii and 6.6 Earth masses—GJ 1214b … GJ 1214 B, also known as Gliese 1214 B, is an exoplanet that orbits the star GJ 1214. [7] Because of the varying pressure at depth, models of a water world include "steam, liquid, superfluid, high-pressure ices, and plasma phases" of water. Gliese 1214 b[3] (often shortened to GJ 1214 b) is an exoplanet that orbits the star Gliese 1214, and was discovered in December 2009. [7] GJ 1214 b could be a rocky planet with an outgassed hydrogen-rich atmosphere, a mini-Neptune, or an ocean planet. Its low mass suggests that unlike Earth GJ 1214b may only have a small amount of rock in its composition. Because a thick and cloud-free hydrogen-rich atmosphere would have produced detectable spectral features, such an atmosphere appears to be ruled out. GJ 1214b occupies an intriguing location in the planetary mass-radius diagram, inasmuch Since astronomers know GJ 1214b's mass and size, they're able to calculate its density, which turns out to be just 2 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cc). For an iron core mass fraction similar to Earth's (30%), GJ 1214b needs 0.3%–1.2% of its mass in a pure H 2 gas layer at the nominal mass and radius. "GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of," Berta said. Water on GJ 1214b would now have a very strange consistency and would seem very alien to us, as a result of high temperatures and atmospheric pressure Gliese 1214 is a dim M4.5 red dwarf in the constellation Ophiuchus with an apparent magnitude of 14.7. To my mind, that makes it more of a "sub-Neptune" than a "super-Earth," but this is semantics. The planet was discovered in December 2009. GJ 1214b is classified as a water-world, and is the only example of such a planet yet to be discovered. Gliese 1214 b (often shortened to GJ 1214 b) is an exoplanet that orbits the star Gliese 1214, and was discovered in December 2009. GJ 1214b has an estimated mass of about 6 to 7 times the mass of Earth, with a radius about 2.7 times the radius of Earth, a low mass indicates that the planet is composed mostly of water. GJ 1214b’s size and mass (2.65 and 6.45 times that of the Earth, respectively;Carter et al.2010) give it a density intermediate to that of our solar system’s inner (rocky) and outer (gas-dominated) planets. Previous observations of the planet's size and mass demonstrated it has a low density for its size, leading astronomers to conclude the planet is some kind of solid body with an atmosphere. The planet, GJ1214b, has a mass about six times that of Earth and its interior is likely mostly made of water ice. [1] The loss of primordial atmosphere was indirectly confirmed in 2020 as no helium was detected at Gliese 1214 b. In particular, it is unclear if hydrogen and helium are present or if the atmosphere is water dominated. 2011). [1] Given the planet's mass and radius, its density can be calculated. 글리제 1214 b는 그 질량과 반지름이 태양계 내 가스 행성들보다 작은 것으로 검증된 두 번째 외계 행성이다(첫 번째로 검증된 행성은 CoRoT-7b이다). A Framework For Characterizing The Atmospheres Of GJ 1214b-type Low-mass Low-density Transiting Planets 2012 FORTNEY J., NETTELMANN N., KEMPTON E., MORDASINI Ch., ZAHNLE K. & 3 additional authors BAAS, 44, no 5, 103.05 abstract Although no clear signs were observed of water vapor or any other molecule, the authors of the study believe the planet may have an atmosphere composed mainly of water vapor. Its equilibrium temperature is believed to be in the range of 393–555 K (120–282 °C; 248–539 °F), depending on how much of the star's radiation is reflected into space. [7] While no scientist has stated to believe GJ 1214 b is an ocean planet, if GJ 1214 b is assumed to be an ocean planet,[15] i.e. Because of the estimated old age of the planetary system and the calculated hydrodynamic escape rate of 9×105 kg s−1, scientists conclude that there has been a significant atmospheric loss during the lifetime of the planet and any current atmosphere cannot be primordial. Through a comparison with theoretical models, the density in turn provides limited but highly useful information about the composition and structure of the planet.[1]. This artist’s conception shows the newly discovered super-Earth GJ 1214b, which orbits a red dwarf star 40 light-years from our Earth. Image: This is an illustration of the hypothetical appearance of the exoplanet GJ 1214b, which is known as a "super-Earth" type planet because it is slightly more than six Earth masses. “GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of,” Berta said. Clouds in Atmosphere of Exoplanet GJ 1214b (Artist's View).tif 4,000 × 3,000; 7.92 MB CompositionOfKepler-10b.jpg 720 × 541; 54 KB Exoplanet Comparison GJ … [6], It is a super-Earth, meaning it is larger than Earth but is significantly smaller (in mass and radius) than the gas giants of the Solar System. A super-Earth is defined as a planet between one and ten times the mass of the Earth. They then observed the star more closely and confirmed that it dimmed by roughly 1.5% every 1.58 days. For instance, if GJ 1214b initially formed beyond the snow line it would contain more icy material than if it formed closer to its star. The newfound world, GJ1214b, is about 6.5 times as massive as the Earth. Astronomers have claimed the existence of a new class of planet: a "water-world" with a thick, steamy atmosphere. [1][14], While very little is known about GJ 1214 b, there has been speculation as to its specific nature and composition. GJ 1214b is now a hot world with temperatures around 200C (392F). According to Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics scientist and lead author Zachory Berta, "GJ1214b is like no planet we know of. The actual bulk make-up of GJ 1214b is determined by its unknown formation, migration, and evolution history. Follow-up radial-velocity measurements were then made with the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO's 3.6-meter telescope at La Silla, Chile; those measurements succeeded in providing independent evidence for the reality of the planet. After COROT-7b, it was the second super-Earth to be known[1] and is the first of a new class of planets with small size and relatively low density. This super-Earth is about 2.7 times Earth's diameter and weighs almost seven times as much. [7] GJ 1214 b is also significant because its parent star is relatively near the Sun and because it transits (crosses in front of) that parent star, which allows the planet's atmosphere to be studied using spectroscopic methods. The scrutinized planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, is classified as a super-Earth type planet because its mass is intermediate between those of Earth and Neptune. [1], In December 2013, NASA reported that clouds may have been detected in the atmosphere of GJ 1214 b. The ground-based MEarth Project, led by CfA's David Charbonneau, discovered GJ 1214b in 2009. [12] Further observations are necessary to determine the composition of its atmosphere. [7] If it is a waterworld, it could possibly be thought of as a bigger and hotter version of Jupiter's Galilean moon Europa. It appears to be rather hot and surrounded by a thick atmosphere, which makes it inhospitable for life as we know it on Earth. the interior is assumed to be composed primarily of a water core surrounded by more water, proportions of the total mass consistent with the mass and radius are about 25% rock and 75% water, covered by a thick envelope of gases such as hydrogen and helium (c. In early 2009, the astronomers running the project noticed that the star GJ 1214 appeared to show drops in brightness of that sort. In this paper, we report observations of three transits of GJ 1214b, taken as part of the Apache Point Observatory Image credit: CfA/David Aguilar Up to date there is no consensus about the composition of its envelope although most studies suggest a high molecular weight atmosphere. GJ 1214b, also known as Gliese 1214b, is 42 light years from Earth and was discovered in November 2009. The mass of the planet can be inferred from sensitive observations of the parent star's radial velocity, measured through small shifts in stellar spectral lines due to the Doppler effect. GJ 1214 bは、木星型惑星よりも … GJ 1214b is a huge “waterworld” three times the size of Earth that can be found 42 light-years away from our solar system. The exoplanet, orbiting a small star only 40 light-years away from us, has a mass about six times that of the Earth. Spectroscopic observations with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope provide evidence of high clouds blanketing the planet. [8][9][10][11], GJ 1214 b was first detected by the MEarth Project, which searches for the small drops in brightness that can occur when an orbiting planet briefly passes in front of its parent star. An update on the atmosphere of super-Earth GJ1214b, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gliese_1214_b&oldid=994903108, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 03:50. Illustration of planet GJ 1214b 5. It is a potential water world that may be comprised of at least 75% water. GJ 1214 bは、へびつかい座の方向に約42光年離れた位置にある恒星 GJ 1214を公転している太陽系外惑星で、2009年12月に発見された。 2017年現在、GJ 1214 bは海洋惑星である可能性が最も高い候補である 。 そのため、科学者たちはGJ 1214 bをThe waterworldと呼んだ 。. Earth’s water is equal to 0.05 percent of its mass, while GJ 1214b’s water contributes 10 percent of its mass! GJ 1214b, first discovered in December 2009, is 2.7 times the size of Earth and 6.5 times as massive. GJ 1214b Mass and Radius GJ 1214b is estimated to have a mass of around 6 to 7 times that of Earth, with a radius of around 2.7 times that of Earth, its low mass suggests a large amount of the planet is made up of water. Its host star, GJ1214, is a small, red type M star about one-fifth the size of the Sun. GJ 1214b … In December 2010, a study was published showing the spectrum to be largely featureless over the wavelength range of 750–1000 nm. GJ 1214b was one of the first Super-Earths discovered, and the first exoplanet to have clouds found in its atmosphere. On the basis of planetary models[15] it has been suggested that GJ 1214 b has a relatively thick gaseous envelope. A new analysis detailing the atmosphere of GJ 1214b—a planet located about 40 light years from earth and one that researchers have studied since 2009—appeared in the March issue of The Astrophysical Journal. GJ 436b is categorized as a "warm Neptune" because it is much closer to its star than frigid Neptune is to the sun. Its luminosity is only 0.33% that of the Sun. While its mass is similar to CoRoT-7b, its diameter is larger, so its density is lower. "A huge fraction of its mass is made up of water." Recent searches for planets around other stars (“exoplanets”) have shown that super-Earths like GJ 1214b are among the most common type of planets in the Milky Way galaxy. It is thought GJ 1214b once orbited in the habitable zone around its host star, which may have allowed life to exist in its warm oceans. GJ 1214b … GJ 1214b (also spelled Gliese 1214b) is an extrasolar planet orbiting the M4.5V dwarf star GJ 1214 in the constellation Ophiuchus, about 42 light-years away. Scientists have debated over GJ 1214b since the planet was discovered back in 2009. Credit: NASA, ESA, and D. Aguilar (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics). Despite being hot its high atmospheric pressures would stop its oceans from boiling. GJ 1214b must be made of a significant quantity of water -- 75% water -- in addition to some rock and iron. GJ 1214b has a radius of about 2.7 times that of Earth and is about 6.5 times as massive, putting it squarely into the class of exoplanets known as super-Earths. [14], Media related to GJ 1214 b at Wikimedia Commons, Coordinates: 17h 15m 18.94s, +4° 57′ 49.7″, "Open Exoplanet Catalogue – Gliese 1214 b", "Mass–radius relationships for solid exoplanets", "10 Real Planets That Are Stranger Than Science Fiction", "Release 13-383 – NASA's Hubble Sees Cloudy Super-Worlds With Chance for More Clouds", "Astronomers Find Super-Earth Using Amateur, Off-the-Shelf Technology", Astronomers Find World with Thick, Inhospitable Atmosphere and an Icy Heart. Due to the relatively small size of GJ 1214 b's parent star, it is feasible to perform spectroscopic observations during planetary transits. Another possibility is that there may be a thick layer of high clouds, which absorbs the starlight. "GJ 1214b is like no planet we know of," study lead author Zachory Berta of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., said in a statement. [4][5] For that reason, scientists have nicknamed the planet "the waterworld". This image shows an artist's view of the planet Gliese 1214 b in front of its host star. “ A huge fraction of its mass is made up of water. It is located at a distance of approximately 47 light years from Earth. By comparing the observed spectrum before and during transits, the spectrum of the planetary atmosphere can be inferred. The two planets fall in the middle range in mass, between smaller, rockier planets such as Earth and larger gas giants such as Jupiter. The star is about one-fifth the radius of the Sun with a surface temperature estimated to be 3 000 K (2 730 °C; 4 940 °F). For that reason, scientists have nicknamed the planet "the waterworld". [1][14] Water planets could result from inward planetary migration and originate as protoplanets that formed from volatile ice-rich material beyond the snow-line but that never attained masses sufficient to accrete large amounts of H/He nebular gas. As of 2017, GJ 1214 b is the most likely known candidate for being an ocean planet. Its parent star is 48 light-years from the Sun, in the constellation Ophiuchus. GJ 1214b is different. This H 2 gas layer is small compared to the H 2 O envelopes in the water planet scenario, but is still large compared to Earth's atmosphere (which accounts for roughly 0.0001% of Earth's mass). The planet orbits a small red dwarf star which has only 16% the mass of our own sun. 글리제 1214 b는 지구로부터 뱀주인자리 방향으로 약 40광년 떨어진 곳에 있는 글리제 1214 주위를 돌고 있는 외계 행성이다. As of 2017, GJ 1214 b is the most likely known candidate for being an ocean planet. It is thought the planet originally formed as an ice world far from its host star. It is estimated that this planet was originally shaped ice planet far from its parent star. If the mutual inclination between GJ 1214b and a hypothetical habitable zone planet is small, the probability of detection is ∼20% (Gillon et al. A paper was then published in Nature announcing the planet and giving estimates of its mass, radius, and orbital parameters. [13], GJ 1214 b may be cooler than any other known transiting planet prior to the discovery of Kepler-16b in 2011 by the Kepler mission. The planet, designated GJ 1214b, is only 2.7 times the diameter of Earth — one of the smallest exoplanets found — and orbits just over a million miles from its star (compare to Earth’s 92 million miles) in a zippy 38-hour ‘year.’ Given its size and density, astronomers speculated that GJ 1214b may very well be covered in deep oceans. it would be more like thick hot ice or alternately acting more like a gas than a liquid. GJ 1214 may be a good target to search for a habitable zone planet. The ground-based MEarth Project, led by CfA’s David Charbonneau, discovered GJ 1214b in 2009. [1], The radius of GJ 1214 b can be inferred from the amount of dimming seen when the planet crosses in front of its parent star as viewed from Earth. 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