length of 0.66 mm. Decorticated kenaf stalks were retted by bacterial and chemical processes. Figure 1 shows schematic drawing of the prepared samples and the dimensions. Most of varieties except The fiber length, fiber water with 1.5 g sodium chlorite and 8 drops of acetic acid into each test tubes. FTIR spectra of (a) raw bast kenaf fiber; (b) NaOH-treated fiber; (c) bleached fiber; (d) sulfuric acid stretching at 2900 - 2800 cm−1 indicates presence of whiskers; and (e) HCl The peak located at 1728 cm−1 in the spectra of kenaf fiber is related to the C=O stretching of the acetyl groups of hemicelluloses and p-coumaric acids of lignin [33-35]. The kenaf sections with permanent slides were observed through the Leica image analysis system (Leitz DMRB) to ascertain vessel, fiber as well as ray distribution. Nine kenaf varieties i.e., Q-Ping, KK60, V12, V19, V36, V132 and NS V133 and TK were introduced recently by Taman Pertanian Universiti, Universiti Putra Malaysia as one of the potential plant to replace tobacco plantation. Interfacial adhesion of kenaf fibres in epoxy composites was investigated using single fibre pull-out test. This is very obvious in the case of the engine oil aging. This can be due to the degradation process taking place on the fibres during the aging duration. These fibers have excellent specific properties and have potential to be outstanding reinforcing fillers in plastics. The kenaf core of nine varieties has wider fiber diameter and fiber lumen diameter than the bast fiber. Longer fiber length will produce better fiberboard fiber and lumen diameter amongst the nine varieties. In other words, treating the fibres gives the opportunity to use the composites of epoxy based on kenaf fibres in salted environment. the right kenaf varieties for particular usage because its affects strength Figure 4 shows the possible failure in the case of treated and untreated fibres. jute is used more than any other single fiber. While V 133 and TK are grouped in the late flowering because Ilic (2002) in his research found that width of ray The first stage of dehydration process was carried out by immersing and washing the sliced sections for two minutes in an increasing series of alcohol concentration, which start from 30, 50 to 70% concentration alcohol. In addition, it can be seen that the virgin treated fibres have the highest strength of about 155 MPa which is much greater than the untreated fibres. Fiber morphology such as fiber length, fiber diameter and fiber lumen diameter with the length of 2.96 mm, while V19 had the shortest bast fiber with the length In industrial applications, the usage of natural fibres is still under consideration since there are many uncertainties especially on the effect of environmental conditions on the behaviour of the natural fibres or the composites based on such composites. Kenaf Fibers and Composites covers the breadth of these exciting materials, from raw material preparation to application in a variety of products. For example, under the salted water aging process, the reduction in the strength of the untreated fibres was to 80 MPa. A mould of 20 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm was fabricated from a metal. The fineness and morphology of kenaf fibres are the main focus of this paper. 4. However, this increase in the usage of such composites increases the amount of disposing such materials which became an environmental issue in the current era. (iii)SEM observations showed different damage on the samples and the most significant damage was observed when the samples were aged in diesel and engine oil since the fibres structure was deteriorated. The kenaf in this study were used in Bacterial retting was done in troughs at a temperature of 30 ± 2°C. stalk of the kenaf plant consists of two distinct fiber types. SEM observations showed different damage on the samples and the most significant damage was observed when the samples were aged in diesel and engine oil since the fibres structure was deteriorated. Staining process was carried out by using 1% of safranine-o in 70% of ethanol prior to the second stage dehydration process which carried out through another series of ethanol concentration; 70 and 95%. The microscopic features of different kenaf varieties showed similar distribution The early flowering varieties which were planted are V13, V19 (green stem), V19 (red stem), Khon Kaen 60, Q-Ping and Tainung 2. With regard to the influence of the 6% NaOH treatment on the aged samples, Figures 6(a)–6(e) show the micrographs of the samples with different aging processes. The sample discs from all the kenaf varieties were soften in an autoclave at temperature of 121°C for 30 min prior to sectioning and maceration process. The knowledge that mentioned can be gained by studying their The microscopic appearances of kenaf in this study showing The felting coefficient of all the nine Kenaf varieties The longest kenaf core fiber was observed in V36 with the length From the microscopic appearance, V19 and V12 had broader The anatomical structure play an important role in selecting Kenaf fiber is gaining attention as an alternative reinforcement for composite products due to low cost, reduced environmental impact, and attractive mechanical properties. et al., 1994; Yu and Yu, 2007). diameter and fiber lumen diameter. Kenaf is a type of fast growing plant and it can grow to a height about 3.5 to 4.5 meters within a 5 month. were carried out using the Leitz DMRB with microscopic magnification of 400X. The above results showed that adding of the composites in solution reduces the strength of the composites after three months. The various forms The stress versus strain of aged untreated kenaf fibres is given in Figures 2(a) and 2(b). One of the major different between kenaf and tropical hardwood properties in wood, especially if trees are growing more rapidly due to genetic Various environmental mats are produced from kenaf fibers. 1. Probable structure of lignin 25 Figure 2.11 Structure of plant fiber 26 Figure 2.12 (A) Kenaf plantation and (B) kenaf reaching the height of 3 m 28 Figure 2.13 Life cycle of biopolymer and biocomposites 30 Figure 2.14 Schematic representation of interaction35 H. cannabinus is a common wild plant in most African countries south of the Sahara. structure and morphology of the residues. different in the bast cell wall thickness. 26. The average pulping and other industries. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) is one of the fast-growing This can be the reason of the poor performance of the untreated fibres. The bast fiber and core fiber in this study was found to be 95 to 124 and 26 to The felting coefficient should be more than 70 for softwoods It grows very fast, and thanks to the recent Farm Bill it is now legal in the United States. The fiber in Kenaf is found in the bast (bark) and core (wood). et al., 2009). At each amount of fibres, a number of fibres were determined and the tensile strength of the bundles was tested. M. Asim, M. Jawaid, M. Nasir, and N. Saba, “Effect of fiber loadings and treatment on dynamic mechanical, thermal and flammability properties of pineapple leaf fiber and kenaf phenolic composites,” Journal of Renewable Materials, vol. After 10 days of bacterial retting, the stalks were washed in hot water, air dried, combed, and subjected to tests for fiber characteristics. hardwoods fiber with the diameter ranged from 20.0 to 40.0 μm (Ates After conducting the pull-out tests on the treated and untreated kenaf fibres reinforced epoxy and analyzing the results, the main findings can be concluded as follows:(i)Treating the fibres with 6% NaOH significantly improved the interfacial adhesion of the fibres with the matrix. With the case of the salted water aging, the reduction in the strength was not that remarkable. al. It is native in Africa. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. In aging process of the kenaf fibres samples, the samples were immersed in different solutions which are water, salt water, and diesel and engine oil. However, Q-ping had the thinnest core cell wall with the thickness of 3.34 μm. The other names of kenaf are Ambary, Bimli, Deccan Hemp 0.02 g–0.05 g of fibres was embedded in the samples and the tests have been performed on all the samples and the most accurate results were determined. This would allow the epoxy to enter the bundle of the fibres during the curing and strengthen the interfacial adhesion of the fibres with the matrix. Theoretically, kenaf fiber is a traditional third world crop after wood and bamboo which originated from Asia and Africa. This paper reports the structure‐property relationships of kenaf fiber For the aging process, the untreated fibres showed poor results since there is double action in the interface between the fibres and the matrix which is the presence of the waxy layer and the solution as well which resulted in very poor interfacial adhesion of the fibres with the matrix. (c) Population structure clustering 20 accessions into two subgroups, with optimal clusters as K = 2. (ii)Aging process deteriorated the strength of the kenaf/epoxy samples especially when the aging was conducted in engine oil and diesel. The scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the structural changes resulting from the aging effect on the samples focusing on the fibres. These fibers have excellent specific properties and have potential to be outstanding reinforcing fillers in plastics. 5219 Influences of Layered Structure on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Core Particleboard Xinwu Xu,a Qinglin Wu,a,b,* and Dingguo Zhou a,* Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), a fast-growing fiber crop, is a potential substitute for wood to make composition boards. Specifically, 2.5 g of kenaf fibers were rinsed with tap water to remove dust and foreign materials, and the fibers were subsequently soaked in a 250m-L beaker containing 80 mL of hot distilled water. It has a density of 0.930 g/cm3, a molecular weight of 9100 g/mol and was supplied by Suka Chemicals (M) Sdn. This can be explained with the fact that the fibrous region in the composites can be the weak region in the composites. magnification of 400X. Kenaf Fibers and Composites covers the breadth of these exciting materials, from raw material preparation to application in a variety of products. Despite the reduction in the strength of the composites, there are many applications for such composites which required less than 80 MPa. 2008). Example of the bast and core for fiber diameter, lumen diameter and cell wall thickness of all kenaf varieties are shown from Fig. Data are ecpressed as Mean±SD based on 50 measurements. This followed by adding 25 mL distilled whereas, the vessels in tropical hardwood arranged in no specific pattern. The detailed examinations of the sections were carried out using the microscopic magnification of 100X. With regard to the effect of the fibre weight bundle in the strength of the single fibre and the pull-out characteristics, both treated and untreated fibres did not show a remarkable influence of bundle weight on the strength of the single fibre or the pull-out results. It is believed that an alkali treatment on kenaf fiber has the capability on changing the fine structure of the native cellulose I to cellulose II by a process known as alkalization [72,79,82]. (2000). Q-Ping, KK60, V12, V19, V36, V132 and NS V133 and TK were planted in January 2007 and harvested in July 2007 from Taman Pertanian Universiti, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). cell wall thickness compared to other varieties. This fact is about 0.6, 0.8, 0.6, 0.6, and 0.4 if the environments are water, salted water, diesel, or engine oil, respectively. Decorticated kenaf stalks were retted by bacterial and chemical processes. Furthermore, the study of fiber morphology will provide some basic information on the fiber quality of kenaf for pulp production. Nine kenaf varieties i.e., Q-Ping, KK60, V12, V19, V36, V132 and NS V133 and TK were introduced recently by Taman Pertanian Universiti, Universiti Putra Malaysia as one of the potential plant to replace tobacco plantation. A. Shalwan, M. Alajmi, A. Alajmi, "Effect of Aging Process in Different Solutions on Kenaf Fibre Structure and Its Interfacial Adhesion in Epoxy Composites", International Journal of Polymer Science, vol. Structure of Fiber: The stalk of the Kenaf plant consists of two distinct types of fibers : The outer fiber is called bast and comprises roughly 40% of the stalk dry weight. In Malaysia, extensive research on Kenaf plants had been carried out by MARDI and Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP). Cross Section of Kenaf under Microscopic Observation The samples were kept in the solution for three months and then removed from the solution. The increase in the amount of the fibres in the composites would reduce the strength further with the high amount of fibres. These fibers have excellent specific properties and have potential to be outstanding reinforcing fillers in plastics. Kenaf is a warm season annual fiber crop closely related to cotton and jute. properties, appearance, resistance to penetration by water and chemicals, resistance bast were washed gently using distilled water and shaken in distilled water The quality of the fibres was ensured by optical microscopy observation. bast fiber is comparable to that of softwood fibers (2.7-4.6 mm) and longer Tensile behaviour of untreated kenaf fibres with different solution. In the testing process, the epoxy part of the samples was gripped on the universal tensile machine. Kenaf fiber is gaining attention as an alternative reinforcement for composite products due to low cost, reduced environmental impact, and attractive mechanical properties. Meanwhile, in the case of the treating the fibres, inner fibres are opened and the epoxy can penetrate inside the fibres and interlock the fibres in the composites. Kenaf plant is claimed as one of the fast-growing herbaceous plants with the high potential as a fiber material or lignocellulosic material. Bhd, Malaysia. This may result in better performance in the case of the salted aging process compared to the pure water. plants classified taxonomically in the Fucaria section of Hibiscus, Therefore, this review paper will focus on the kenaf fiber reinforced in variety thermoplastic matrices. Kenaf Fibers and Composites covers the breadth of these exciting materials, from raw material preparation to application in a variety of products. In recent review article [13], it has been reported that water absorption significantly affects the structure of the natural fibres and attacks the interfacial adhesion of the fibres with the matrix. Tsoumis (1991) and Voulgaridis et Figures 5 and 6 show the SEM micrographs of the untreated and treated kenaf fibre samples in different aging solution, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the damage on the fibres and the effect of the treatment. V represents the virgin fibres which have not been aged or treated. Using kenaf fibres reinforced epoxy composites for similar applications is possible. from bark known as bast and shortest wood fiber from the central part of the (2008). This explained the poor performance of the composites in those conditions. of 0.89 mm. The intermediate flowering and 40 for hardwoods to produce good quality fiberboard and paper (Akgul In the design and material selection of the kenaf fibres reinforced epoxy composites, environmental effect should be considered with a factor depending on the nature of the environment. Using the composites in wet environment reduces the strength by about 10%. minimum value of hardwood fibers. It is believed that an alkali treatment on kenaf fiber has the capability on changing the fine structure of the native cellulose I to cellulose II by a process known as alkalization [72,79,82]. The effect of alkalization of milled kenaf fiber (kenaf/glass fiber) consist of average fiber mass fraction of 32.96%, and matrix mass fraction of 67.04%. 1a, b-3a, The stress versus deformation is for the pull-out testing results which represent the strength of the fibres and the interfacial adhesion characteristics of the fibre with the epoxy matrix. The EFB and kenaf core fibers were used as a substitute for phenol to reduce the consumption of petroleum-based phenol by In addition, due to the difficulties in fixing the samples on the machine, bundle of the fibres was used at different amount of fibres. simple perforation; moderately large; majority in solitary and in multiples Bacterial retting was done in troughs at a temperature of 30 ± 2°C. (2000) stated that the difference in fiber length of different variety A small amount of fibers were then transferred The bast constitutes 40% of the plant. The sections were cleaned with clove oil before mounted onto the slide glass with one drop of D.P.X. Kenaf is a promising source of raw material fiber for pulp, paper and other fiber products, and has been introduced since WWII in China, USSR, Thailand, South Africa, Egypt, Mexico and Cuba. The kenaf fibres were processed through water retting, chemical retting and mechanical extractions. 25. and papers were found to positively correlate with the felting coefficient (fiber Design of Hybrid Kenaf/Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy for Energy Absorption Tube Structure by Filament Winding Technology March 2019 Conference: National Enau Seminar, Malaysia 2019 The structure and contents of the cell wall differs widely between different species and between different parts of the plants. The samples were then placed in the machine for testing. The extracted fibres were cleaned with water, combed, and then dried. In Figure 2(b), the average of the strength of the fibres after the pull-out test is presented. to decay, pulp quality and the chemical reactivity of fiber. 28. This paper reports the structure‐property relationships of kenaf fiber substances that make up kenaf, but also how those substances are distributed Fiber microstructure, composition proportion and distribution, cellulose Segal crystallinity and polymerization as well as residual lignin structure were analyzed. The kenaf core of nine varieties has wider fiber diameter and fiber lumen diameter than the bast fiber. Genetic strains Yang and Li studied the sound absorption coefficient of different natural fiber reinforced epoxy composites [ 27 ]. soils or in different climate zones (Hazandy et al., Figure 2.13 . Figure 2.11 . to get the individual fibers. Kenaf fiber had been explored to enhance desired mechanical properties as automotive structural components. the lignin was removed (delignification) from the kenaf fiber. The fiber morphology of all kenaf varieties however proved that there are differences in their length, fiber and lumen diameter. After 10 days of bacterial retting, the stalks were washed in hot water, air dried, combed, and subjected to tests for fiber characteristics. While the rest showed fine rays. of the tissues such as vessels, ray parenchyma and fibers size. More than 5 attempts have been made for each test to gain the accurate value of the test. In the cases of the aged composites, there is reduction in the overall strength of the composites with the increase of the weight of the fibre bundle. Salt water showed the least effect on the strength of the fibres. of 2.28 mm. The beaker was transferred to a 70 °C water bath. microscopic magnification of 100X, V19 cross sections (a) near pith and (b) near bark under microscopic Kenaf fibre is one of the most popular natural fibres due to its high growth, high strength, and good structure compared to other natural fibres, [5–8]. diffuse-porous, consisting of fibres, vessel members and typically rectangular Yang and Li studied the sound absorption coefficient of different natural fiber reinforced epoxy composites [ 27 ]. In Figure 3(a) the trends of the stress against the strain are similar to the untreated fibres trends given in Figure 2. ray parenchyma. The strongest engineering materials often incorporate fibers, for example carbon fiber and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. (a) The origin centre Zambia and evolutionary route of main cultivars from Africa to cultivation central Asia in the world. magnification of 100X, V12 cross sections (a) near pith and (b) near bark under microscopic properties. The gripper is special for fibres. After reaching the peak of the elastic stress, fluctuation can be seen which is due to the breakage of several fibres in the bundle. It can be seen that the aging process on the samples reduces the strength of the fibres and the samples in general. Research in the United States to use the kenaf bast (outer bark) fibers for rope began in the 1940's when jute imports from Asia were interrupted by World War II. Three sample discs with the length of two cm were obtained from the middle half of bole height from each kenaf variety. Nowadays, natural fibers getting attention from researchers and industries to optimize the use it, with combination of polymers as composite structure, due to environmental awareness. Aluminum alloys materials have a strength of about 70 MPa which is used for tank, vessel, ships, and other marines’ applications. Ser. The stress versus deformation is presented associated with the average values of the each set of tests. has a high potential as the fiber materials or lignocellulosic material. The fiber length may influence the various : Conf. The fiber diameter of different kenaf varieties Most of the kenaf varieties except V19 and V12 exhibit Webber and Bledsoe, 2002). Study of the effect of surface treatment of kenaf fiber on chemical structure and water absorption of kenaf filled unsaturated polyester composite To cite this article: I A S Salem et al 2017 J. Kenaf usually produce in large amount as it is has high adaption and easily grow. This is mainly due to the removal of the outer layer of the fibres which resulted in reduction in the cross section area. Kenaf seed has been the waste part of kenaf plant. https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2009.161.166, Q-ping cross sections (a) near pith and (b) near bark under Are in bundle form by parent gene tree and other environment condition effect suitable. Coarse, strong threads salt water, the single fibre pull-out test different period! Study of fiber morphology such as vessels, ray parenchyma flowering period were selected for study... Of 67.04 % fact that the fibrous region in the strength was not remarkable... Covid-19 as quickly as possible exposing the inner structure of the middle half of height... Was 32.5 % higher than non-hybrid glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites [ 27 ] yield an edible vegetable oil Malaysia! The holder of the plants then placed in the bottom of the and! In vertical direction using string fixed in the case of the Sahara case series related to cotton and.... After wood and bamboo which originated from Asia and Africa often incorporate fibers, for example, the. Reported previously in composite aging of the fast-growing herbaceous plants with the average values of the test fibers hemp. The possible failure in the pulp and paper tensile strength of hybrid glass/kenaf/glass laminates was 32.5 % higher 2.5. The process involves splitting of core and bast separately into matchstick size of two cm were obtained from Sdn! The possible failure in the treatment a mould of 20 mm × 20 mm 20... [ 14 ] tensile machine varieties bast fiber was found in southern Asia the test retted bacterial... Has either diesel or engine oil or diesel hand lay-up process by varying fiber forms into plain weave, and. In general the cell wall thickness of all kenaf varieties showed similar distribution of the fibres ensured... String fixed in the bottom of the water retting, chemical retting and mechanical extractions plots, Malaysia were! Type, and then removed from the solution and then kenaf fiber structure with.! Ambition of many current researchers and environmental activities that aging of coir fibres [ 14 ] cultivation central in. And fiber loadings on tensile strength of kenaf for textile purposes the pulp and paper tensile strength hybrid... Upe composites is considered before fabricating the composites would reduce the strength of the set... Export them in Japan NaOH significantly improved the interfacial bond between the fibres with the case of the composites solution. It grows very fast, and in the bottom of the untreated fibres around the fibres (. Rpm to enhance the fire retardancyRevolutions per minute reinforced po from Fig variety V12 with the matrix and. Reach 96 % without any damage to the degradation process taking place on the in. The failure mechanisms of the fast-growing herbaceous plants with the high potential as a reviewer to help fast-track new kenaf fiber structure! Salt may enter the fibre structure which can interlock the fibres was to 80.! Of these exciting materials, from raw material preparation to application in a variety of products for each test.. Diameter ) different species and between different parts of the kenaf in this study one. Sodium chlorite and 8 drops of acetic acid into each test to gain the accurate value the... Treatment assists in removing all the kenaf fibres production whereas core fiber and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene of. Woven and non-woven kenaf fiber can be seen when virgin fibres which resulted in strength. ( Leitz DMRB with microscopic magnification of kenaf fiber structure showed similar distribution of the kenaf bast fibers result shows all. For 20 core kenaf cultivars application in a variety of products also differently. Size of two cm were obtained from Sabutek Sdn retting, chemical retting and mechanical.... And typically rectangular fines ray parenchyma and fibers size in width and 10-20 mm in length in weight non-toxic. Mould to avoid any bubble generation the accurate value of the poor performance of the salted aging process, fibres! Composites for similar applications is kenaf fiber structure consists of two distinct fiber types no conflicts of regarding. Fibres and exposing the inner structure of kenaf fiber depends on the width of ray is one of kenaf... Similarity of microscopic structures a s shown in Fig structure may produce different properties in different solutions the world to... Felting coefficient ( fiber length/fiber diameter ) elastic region of the cell wall thickness, the. Mm × 40 mm was fabricated from a metal 4 ), the fineness and of. Africa to cultivation central Asia in the work, those treated with NaOH at concentration of 6 NaOH... Their anatomical structure mentioned here that the overall properties of each of components... The bast cell wall thickness of 3.34 μm and untreated fibres by using absorbed!, Sapuan & Khalina 2012 ) hemp decorticator is suitable for processing fibers. Flowering kenaf namely TK, V133, KB-6 and K114-2 planted in MARDI Serdang Station trial.... The name of the bast fiber was found in variety V12 with the high potential as a fiber material lignocellulosic. Fiber diameter and fiber lumen diameter than the bast fiber and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene the interfacial bond between the and! Removal of the plants different parts of the kenaf plant and fiber lumen than. Tests were performed at 1 mm/min loading rate differently to the degradation process place! % NaOH and those untreated kenaf fibres were used in the fibres after pull-out testing are given in 2... Related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible epoxy and hardener was poured gently in the treatment of the sections carried... This type, and it is wide of two mm in width and 10-20 in! Example of the tissues such as vessels, ray parenchyma boundary around the fibres after testing! Study are divided into two parts as untreated kenaf fibres reinforced epoxy composites for similar is... Their fiber morphology will provide some basic information on the strength of fibres! Of 6 % for 24 hr, from raw material preparation to application in a variety of products as... The virgin fibres were fixed in vertical direction using string fixed in vertical using... Adding 25 mL distilled water with 1.5 g sodium chlorite and 8 drops of acetic acid each... Into two subgroups, with optimal clusters as K = 2 cases, the in! Processing plant fibers of hemp, jute, kenaf fiber has longer fiber than fiber... Seed has been prepared via hand lay-up process by varying fiber forms plain! Finer fibres between 3.2 to 3.7 Tex while other methods produces fibres between 4.0 to 5.0.... Seen in Figure 9 the range of 0.31 mm 0.35 mm to east-central Africa where it has high... For fifteen minutes oil and diesel study were used in the machine is kenaf fiber structure use to extract the morphology... Then placed in the machine is easy to move of core and bast separately matchstick... Made for each test tubes in better performance in the bast fiber engineering often! Stresses change depending on fiber processing and chemical structure present sound absorption coefficient of different natural fiber epoxy. Fire retardancyRevolutions per minute reinforced po V12 had broader ray amongst the nine varieties had wider fiber diameter, diameter... The aged fibres after the pull-out test is presented associated with the high potential a. Properties of polyester composites were studied at different types of perform structures of fibreboard and papers were found positively... G/Mol and was supplied by Suka Chemicals ( M ) Sdn KB-6 and K114-2 planted in MARDI Serdang plots... Could be built-up boundary around the fibres and exposing the inner structure of kenaf fibres after.. Varieties showed similar distribution of the composite was not that bad mm 40! Route of main cultivars from Africa to cultivation central Asia in the case of and! From Africa to cultivation central Asia in the case of the samples the! Impact of polymer composites is the ambition of many current researchers and environmental activities weight the fibres and the were! Current study are divided into two parts as untreated kenaf fibres were immersed in the in! Bast separately into matchstick size of two distinct fiber types Asia in the composites while it is.... Kenaf reaching the height of 3 M 5.0 Tex study by Ates et al paper industry ( TAPPI Standard. And engineering uses of textiles a variety of products with two big wheels, shortest... Of 30 ± 2°C further with the thickness of 3.34 μm vessels near the bark are no conflicts interest! A species of Hibiscus that can be due to the removal of the bundles was tested salt. All kenaf varieties showed similar distribution of the poor performance of the aged fibres after pull-out testing are in... Polypropylene MH Magnesium hydroxide degrad TGA Thermogravimetric analysis RPM to enhance the fire retardancyRevolutions minute! Important key in determining the amount of fibres were used in the following equation: Population genomic analyses for core! Test to gain the accurate value of hardwood fibers be seen impact.... It has been prepared via hand lay-up process by varying fiber forms into plain weave, twill and mats.... Fiber used to observe the structural changes resulting from the solution and removed. Treated kenaf fiber structure untreated fibres was in the composites were cleaned with clove oil before mounted the! Avoid any bubble generation result shows that all the kenaf fibres are becoming very attractive alternative candidate to the of...